Continue (Part 5) of How to get a long life of tyres, what to do, what not to do with tyres. A complete guide on care and maintenance of tyres.


Tyre Tread a)       Irregular tread wear Endeavor to determine reason for irregular wear and remove tyre to another running position to avoid loss in mileage.
b)      Cuts If extensive or more than superficial remove tyre for repair.
c)       Imbedded stones, nails, or other foreign objects. Remove object and remove tyre for repair If necessary.
d)      Bulging Replace tyre demount from wheel for thorough Inspection,
e)      Exposed casing Replace tyre, demount an examine if suitable for ret reading and/or repair.
f)        Chassis fouling tyre tread. Inform vehicle maintenance staff and replace tyre if damage is” serious.
g)       Oil or Grease contamination. Clean.

Tyre Sidewalls a)       Damage or cuts If extensive or more than superficial remove tyre for repair.
b)      Cracking If extensive or more than superficial remove tyre for repair.
c)       Oil or Grease contamination Clean.
Dual Assemblies a)       Foreign objects lodged between tyres. Remove object and examine tyres to determine If removal for repair ls necessary.
b)      Correct matching of dual tyres. Fit correctly matched tyres.
c)       Unequal or uneven

wear indicating pressure irregularities.

Check pressures with gauge and remove unevenly worn tyre to new position.
d)      Correct spacing of duals. Ascertain why spacing is incorrect and take suitable action.
Rims and Wheels Damaged, bent or distorted rims, locking rings, or flanges, Replace
Valve Stems Valve cap and tightness of valve cap. Fit new cap or tighten
Inflation Pressure Gross underinflation, either visually or by “Hammer” test. Top up pressure: although when a regular maintenance schedule is followed gross under inflation will probably be due to some tyre, tube or valve defect


Type of condition Possible cause of condition Suggested Action
“Father edges” on tread Sharp edge on one side of tread. Irregular tread wear. Wheel misalignment (Toe-in or Toe out).


Check front wheel alignment. Check axle alignment with chassis. Check wheel bearing, etc. Check for bent axles.
Onesie wear Incorrect wheel camber Sagging axle. Overloading on cambered roads. Check wheel camber. Check loads. Check for sagging axle.
Shoulders of tyre worn more than Centre. “Stepped” wear, Heel and toe wear. Scooped wear in Centre of tread, Under-inflation. Overloading. Excessive acceleration and braking Over inflation. Check Inflation. Check loads. More careful driving habits.
Worn spots on tread Bad brake adjustment, Eccentric brake drums, Faulty wheel bearings, Faulty hub or axle assemblies. Loose steering links. Correct brake adjustment Grind brake drums concentric. Check wheel bearings. Check axle and hub assemblies. Check steering linkage.
Tread or sidewall scoring damage Damaged by projecting bolts, spring shackles, etc. Remove cause of damage.
Kerbing damage Frequent rubbing against kerb or other similar objects. More careful driving habits.
Tread cracking Overload. Over inflation. Underinflation. Maintain correct loading and inflation pressure.
Tread cuts Operating conditions. Accident damage. Tyres to be removed for repair immediately cuts are noticed. Inspect tyres regularly.
Tread or ply separation not due to neglected tread cuts Overloading, 0verinflation, Underinflation, High speed, Impact. See that loads and pressures are correct for vehicle. Control of

vehicle speeds.

Tread separation due

to neglected tread cuts.

Neglected tread cuts. Tyres to be removed for repair immediately cuts are noticed. Inspect tyres regularly.
Radial sidewall cracking Overloading, Underinflation,

Exposure to sunlight.

Keep to correct loading and pressures. Proper storage of stock tyres.
Weather checking Overloading, Underinflation, Exposure to sunlight, 0ld tyres. Keep to correct loading and pressures. Proper storage of stock tyres.
Bread Chafing and Bead Burst. Damaged wheel, Rusty or distored flange, Overloading, Underinflation, In sufficient twin tyre clearance. See that rims and wheels are in good condition. Check loads and

pressures. Check that twin clearance is adequate. Don ‘t over size.

Damaged Beads Careless use of type levers. Faulty flange or lock ring. Use correct fitting and dismounting methods. See

that flanges and lock rings are in good condition.

Diagonal and “X” impact fractures. Overinflection, High speeds, Accidental impact dmg,


See that pressures and loads are correct. Keep to specified vehicle speed. Careful driving.
Casing burst starting from bead area. Overloading, Underinflation, Insufficient twin tyre clearance. See that loads and pressures are correct. Check that twin tyre clearance is adequate, Don’t over


Rim bruises Pinching of tyre between object and wheel flange. Underinflation. Careful driving habits, Check pressure.
Casing break-up or

fabric fatigue.

Underinflation, Overinflection,


Check loads and pressures
Loose cords tyre casing.  Running tyre In a grossly underinflated or deflated condition. Keep to correct pressures. As far as ls possible never move a vehicle on

a deflated or grossly underinflated tyre.

Twin tyre damage due to stones or other objects being trapped between twins. Trapped stones, etc. Frequently examine twin assemblies.
punctures Sharp objects penetrating carcass. Examine tyres regularly and remove all imbedded objects from tread.
Scuffing of the Inner side walls of twin tyres. Insufficient clearance between twin tyres. Check loads and pressures. Don’t oversize.


It is the air confined within the tube that carries the entire load and not the tyre I.e. “Air carries the load”. Hence the tube is constructed to prevent the loss of confined air. A tyre is no better than its tube. A tyre maintenance program which virtually ignores proper maintenance of tubes will result in low tyre mileage.

How to Improve Tube Performance

  • Always put new tube in a new tyre because used tube will have stretched and grown in service. If a used tube is refitted in a new tyre it will crease and ultimately result in both tyre and tube failure.
  • Always use correct size tube. If a larger tube ls fitted. Ln a smaller tyre, the tube will crease. Similarly, if a correct size tube is fitted carelessly, the tube will crease and result in failure.
  • Never fit an undersize tube with a tyre. Thle will result in:
  1. Excessive stretching and thinning of tube causing substantial loss in air.
  2. Reduced resistance to wear and tear and punctures.
  3. Excessive strain on the valve base.
  4. Ability to retain air will be less in a stretched tube.
  5. Deterioration of the tube rubber due to stretch.
  • Always use a new valve core and valve caps.
  • Mount the tubes correctly. Careless fitting of tube will damage valve stem.

How to Mount Tube Correctly.

Many of the tube failures are attributed to bud fitting:

  1. Ensure that there is no foreign material inside the tyre. Foreign material trapped between tube and tyre casing, will cause chafing and tube will fail prematurely.
  2. Properly remove dust in the tube, flip and inside of the tyre with chalk powder.
  3. Insert tube in tyre and inflate until it is rounded out.
  4. Properly center the flap between beads to prevent folds or wrinkles.
  5. Adjust the valve to tie centrally in the valve slot to prevent valve chafing.
  6. Inflate and diflate for few times before final inflation. This will help correct seating of the tube.


Flap is to protect the tube from damage that may be caused by rim, tyre bead or excessive brake-drum heat. A flap can cause costly tyre and tube failure. Flaps which have once twisted, creased, cracked in the rim-side of the flap or folded over at edges should not be used again.


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